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Developing a
security posture

The average cost worldwide for each data breach reached an all-time high of 4.12 million euros last year. This is an increase of 15.3% from 3.57 million euros in 2020.


Percentage of breaches

that involved data stored in the cloud—public, private or multiple environments


Percentage of organizations

planning to increase security investments as a result of a breach


Percentage of malicious

attacks that rendered systems inoperable


Percentage of organizations

to increase the prices of services and products as a result of a data breach

Security and risk management

All organizations must develop their security posture. Security posture is an organization’s ability to manage its defense of critical assets and data and react to change. Elements of the security and risk management domain that impact an organization's security posture include:

  • Security goals and objectives
  • Risk mitigation processes
  • Compliance
  • Business continuity plans
  • Legal regulations
  • Professional and organizational ethics

Information security, or InfoSec, is also related to this domain and refers to a set of processes established to secure information. An organization may use playbooks and implement training as a part of their security and risk management program, based on their needs and perceived risk. There are many InfoSec design processes, such as:

  • Incident response
  • Vulnerability management
  • Application security
  • Cloud security
  • Infrastructure security

As an example, a security team may need to alter how personally identifiable information (PII) is treated in order to adhere to the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Asset security

Asset security involves managing the cybersecurity processes of organizational assets, including the storage, maintenance, retention, and destruction of physical and virtual data. Because the loss or theft of assets can expose an organization and increase the level of risk, keeping track of assets and the data they hold is essential. Conducting a security impact analysis, establishing a recovery plan, and managing data exposure will depend on the level of risk associated with each asset. Security analysts may need to store, maintain, and retain data by creating backups to ensure they are able to restore the environment if a security incident places the organization’s data at risk.

Security architecture and engineering

This domain focuses on managing data security. Ensuring effective tools, systems, and processes are in place helps protect an organization’s assets and data. Security architects and engineers create these processes.

One important aspect of this domain is the concept of shared responsibility. Shared responsibility means all individuals involved take an active role in lowering risk during the design of a security system. Additional design principles related to this domain, which are discussed later in the program, include:

  • Threat modeling
  • Least privilege
  • Defense in depth
  • Fail securely
  • Separation of duties
  • Keep it simple
  • Zero trust
  • Trust but verify

An example of managing data is the use of a security information and event management (SIEM) tool to monitor for flags related to unusual login or user activity that could indicate a threat actor is attempting to access private data.

Communication and network security

This domain focuses on managing and securing physical networks and wireless communications. This includes on-site, remote, and cloud communications. 


Organizations with remote, hybrid, and on-site work environments must ensure data remains secure, but managing external connections to make certain that remote workers are securely accessing an organization’s networks is a challenge. Designing network security controls—such as restricted network access—can help protect users and ensure an organization’s network remains secure when employees travel or work outside of the main office.

Identity and access management

The identity and access management (IAM) domain focuses on keeping data secure. It does this by ensuring user identities are trusted and authenticated and that access to physical and logical assets is authorized. This helps prevent unauthorized users, while allowing authorized users to perform their tasks.


Essentially, IAM uses what is referred to as the principle of least privilege, which is the concept of granting only the minimal access and authorization required to complete a task. As an example, a cybersecurity analyst might be asked to ensure that customer service representatives can only view the private data of a customer, such as their phone number, while working to resolve the customer's issue; then remove access when the customer's issue is resolved.

Security assessment and testing 

The security assessment and testing domain focuses on identifying and mitigating risks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Security assessments help organizations determine whether their internal systems are secure or at risk. Organizations might employ penetration testers, often referred to as “pen testers,” to find vulnerabilities that could be exploited by a threat actor. 


This domain suggests that organizations conduct security control testing, as well as collect and analyze data. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance of conducting security audits to monitor for and reduce the probability of a data breach. To contribute to these types of tasks, cybersecurity professionals may be tasked with auditing user permissions to validate that users have the correct levels of access to internal systems.

Security operations

The security operations domain focuses on the investigation of a potential data breach and the implementation of preventative measures after a security incident has occurred. This includes using strategies, processes, and tools such as:

  • Training and awareness
  • Reporting and documentation
  • Intrusion detection and prevention
  • SIEM tools   
  • Log management
  • Incident management
  • Playbooks
  • Post-breach forensics
  • Reflecting on lessons learned

The cybersecurity professionals involved in this domain work as a team to manage, prevent, and investigate threats, risks, and vulnerabilities. These individuals are trained to handle active attacks, such as large amounts of data being accessed from an organization's internal network, outside of normal working hours. Once a threat is identified, the team works diligently to keep private data and information safe from threat actors. 

We Can Help You Be Compliant

Report a Breach

You are obligated to report a breach to all the affected parties in 72 hours. Failure to do so can lead to penalties.

Security Posture

If a breach did happen and you do not have appropriate security measures to prevent the leak of private information, you could be fined up to 200.000 euros.

After an Incident

If you are investigated for leaking private information and you can not provide the appropriate data to help the ongoing investigation, you can be fined up to 200.000 euros.


As you can see regulatory frameworks are demanding. Without proper defense measures it is not possible to stay compliant.

Having more questions?

Please visit our FAQ page to read more about Cybersecurity. You can also ask us anything. Email us or use our contact form. We are happy to help you.